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Technology for Future Defense: The Potential of AI and Location Information Technology


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Accurate positioning information is becoming increasingly important in the military and defense fields as technology evolves. For cutting-edge operations, position-determining technology utilizing AI will be the key to ensuring success and safety.

Changes in investment in military tech

Global conflicts are breaking the constraints and old taboos on investing in battlefield technology.

Scale AI, supported by Accel, provides AI data training and verification for enterprises and the defense industry. It has closed a Series F round valued at $1 billion, bringing its valuation to $13.8 billion. This is a significant 89% increase from the Series E valuation of $7.3 billion in 2021[1].

Meanwhile, Anduril, a startup developing unmanned weapons systems supported by Founders Fund and Valor Equity Partners, is negotiating to raise about $1.5 billion at a more than $12.5 billion valuation. Anduril's last funding round ended in December 2022 with a valuation of $84.8 billion[2].

If these rounds are successful, they could be the largest investments in venture capital (funds for investing in new businesses) provided to American startups by 2024. This shows that investor confidence in the emerging industry of military technology utilizing AI is growing.

Until a decade ago, many companies were reluctant to invest large sums in military technology due to concerns about profitability and the use of technology, and such actions were not culturally accepted.

However, venture capital firms like Andreessen Horowitz have made significant investments in companies involved in national security[3], leading to increased attention to defense technology due to companies like Anduril, Palantir, and Shield AI making substantial profits.

Notably, Anduril was founded in 2017 by Palmer Luckey[4], who designed the Oculus Rift virtual reality headset. He has said that he founded Anduril out of a sense of crisis about the current state of U.S. defense needs changing and many major tech companies being reluctant to deal with the U.S. Department of Defense, resulting in a delay in the modernization of U.S. military technology. Anduril's annual revenue is projected to reach $1 billion by 2026.

The war in Ukraine has increased the demand for the reconstruction of weapons using AI technology, increasing demand from military contractors and the U.S. government. Investments have been increasing accordingly, and aerospace and defense companies have disclosed that they have raised a total of $71.7 billion from venture capital[5]. This sector is expected to reach a similar scale of investment in 2024.

New Concept: Dual-Use

One of the new ideas attracting attention recently and causing change so far is dual-use (military and civilian use).

Dual-use refers to products, services, and technologies that can be utilized in both the military and industry. It addresses defense and social issues using cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and cybersecurity. This approach gave birth to many new technologies that became widely used, which in turn created numerous benefits and uses beyond the original purpose.

A major advantage of dual-use is the improvement of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. By creating solutions that can be used in various fields, development costs can be shared, and resources can be used more efficiently. For example, advances in robotics technology for defense can be used in industries such as healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation, simplifying the system and reducing costs.

Situation in Japan

Let's look at the current situation in Japan.

It is already clear that the environment surrounding Japan's security is becoming increasingly severe. In recent years, our country's geopolitical situation has become increasingly unstable.

Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Agency (ATLA) is considering creating a new research organization after 2024[6]. This organization would invest in research on new defense equipment and create an environment where one can challenge without fear of failure. It would also aim to support the development of new technologies such as AI, drones, and quantum technology.

In December 2022, the Japanese government reviewed three documents on national security and identified China's foreign policy and military movements as the major threat. Furthermore, the "National Defense Strategy" indicated a policy to strengthen defense capabilities significantly and respond to new ways of fighting, and it recognized that civilian new technology is important for defense[7].

It is now recognized worldwide that we must quickly incorporate cutting-edge civilian technology into defense equipment to counter threats from neighboring countries.

スクDefense Technology Guidelines 2023

From the Defense Technology Guidelines 2023[8]. It serves as a guideline for the Ministry of Defense to promote these initiatives in a unified and powerful manner, concretizing the policy on strengthening the defense technology infrastructure indicated in the three strategic documents.

Digitalization of Military Activities

Looking at examples in America and Europe, it is clear that the integration of digital technology into military operations is significantly transforming traditional practices[9]. The advancement of digital technology has the potential to fundamentally change how military operations are conducted and improve their efficiency and effectiveness.

In recent military actions[10], helicopters from Ukraine's 12th Army Aviation Brigade landed in Novopavlivka in eastern Ukraine to prepare for a planned rocket attack. However, during their brief landing, they became a target of Russia's advanced drone artillery network, destroying two helicopters and killing two pilots. This incident is part of a series of successful attacks by the Russian military, demonstrating significant improvements in their command chain, which integrates drones and artillery to target Ukrainian forces effectively.


One Ukrainian Mil helicopter burns. Another lies abandoned. RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY CAPTURE

This highlights the importance of shortening the decision-making loop through the digitalization of the battlefield, the automation of some command tasks, and the use of accurate and reliable data, including GNSS, which is necessary for such operations.

Digital technology accelerates information collection, analysis, and distribution, enabling more accurate decision-making. It will also become a tool for constructing new defense strategies and securing superiority on the battlefield.

Fundamental Importance of Positioning Information

Various types of data are needed for this. Positioning information is an extremely important element and indispensable for various activities, from planning to selecting strategic points, managing supplies, and making quick decisions in real-time. Also, positioning information must be at the center of the command and control system to maximize cooperation between units.

Furthermore, accurate positioning data makes it possible to provide quick and efficient aid in rescue and humanitarian assistance activities. This is because positioning data enables the identification of specific aid activity locations and, based on this, the allocation of appropriate resources. In other words, positioning information rapidly becomes fundamental for us to carry out critical activities.

Challenges of Current GNSS Systems

Jamming and spoofing

Despite its many advantages, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) faces serious vulnerabilities such as jamming and spoofing[11]. These threats are severe, compromising the reliability of positioning data and posing a significant risk to military efficiency and safety. Jamming is a phenomenon where GNSS signal reception is interfered with by powerful radio waves of the same frequency, preventing accurate positioning information from being obtained. Spoofing, on the other hand, refers to the act of deceiving a system by broadcasting false signals, causing the system to mistake false positioning information for accurate information and potentially taking incorrect actions. Measures to counter these threats are needed.

TRAILS: Inertial Navigation Using AI

how trails works

TRAILS, by Zeteoh Inc., offers an advanced and scalable solution to these challenges, representing a robust transformation in positioning and navigation. It can calculate precise movements and speeds by integrating inertial navigation data obtained from gyro sensors and accelerometers with AI algorithms.

Furthermore, this system can provide reliable positioning information even when GNSS signals are jammed. This is essential for maintaining accurate positioning information even when jamming is possible.

how to support GNSS

In this way, TRAILS plays a vital role in maintaining the consistency of control operations even in hostile environments. This is essential to ensure operators can rely on positioning data.


As the defense sector faces new challenges, integrating AI-driven positioning technologies like TRAILS, a dual-use technology, is not just an advantage but an absolute necessity. This technology, which provides robust and reliable data even under adverse conditions, ensures that military and defense operations can maintain speed and accuracy. Adopting such innovative technologies is extremely important for national security, and focusing on investment and development in the defense field should be our top priority for ensuring our safety.

Zeteoh’s AI-driven positioning technology assists information gathering and decision-making in complex, unpredictable combat environments. It will be a fundamental ecosystem element to secure strategic superiority against opponents. Therefore, further investment in research and development in the defense field is essential to ensure our safety and deal with future threats.


  7. National Defense Strategy


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